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Xibaipo

 

 

The Former Residence of Comrade Mao Zedong 

Comrade Mao Zedong arrived at Xibaipo on May 26,1948 and from then on it is in this ordinary cottage of the small mountainous that Chairman Mao worked day and night for China's liberation career until March, 1949.

This ordinary cottage is made up of a small dooryard. In the dooryard, there set up a guardhouse, a water-house in the west side, and a millstones and a pigpen on the west of the lane. In order to keep the dooryard clean, the guard soldiers intended to remove the millstone and the pigpen, but Chairman Mao told them sincerely and earnestly:“Comrades,Chinese revolution develops day by day, we won't reside here for a long time, hence we shouldn't remove them, the masses will still use them in the future.” Thus the soldiers plastered them. In the summer days, Chairman Mao, Zhu De and Liu Shaoqi and other leaders often discussed the state affairs beside the millstone or under the trees.  


It is the backyard of Chairman Mao's house where the trees were planted according to the previous condition. The room in the south of the western house was the bedroom of the Chairman Mao's daughter Li Na and her nurse, the middle one was the bedroom of Mao's family and the dining room of the family, and the northen one was the study and the data room of Mao Zedong. The east room and the west room in the northern house were the office and the bedroom of Chairman Mao respectively. It is the air-raid shelter out from the back door.

The desk, sofa, swivel chair and tea table etc. which are furnished in the office are the things that Chairman Mao had used.

During the period in Xibaipo, Chairman Mao was very busy with the light always lighted day and night. The five secretaries often researched the war situation around the round table, and they sit wirhin a command and devise strategiesthat would assure victory one kilometer away. The operational policies, multiple documents and telegraphs, instructions for the Liaoshen campaign, the Huaihai campaign and the Pingjin campaign which startled all over the world were sent out from this office and it is just here that Chairman Mao writed many composings, from which 20 writings were collected into the 4th volume of  Mao Zedong's Anthology. 

Chairman Mao was very concerned about the guard soldiers and often went to their dormitories to ask about the living necessities. The soldiers were born in poor families and never studied at school, so Chairman Mao instructed them that they should the knowledge to carry out the revolution better. He himself often taught them to read and also invited a compulsory teacher with more knowledge to teach them, and made a rule of teaching and studying each other. Chairman Mao also sent some guards to central knowledge made-up class to study, and when they were about to leave, he autographed:“Make arduous efforts, serve for people” and “Study hard now, and work hard in the future”, and then he also took group photo with them for memory. The soldiers remembered Chairman Mao's instruction forever.

After the second meeting of the seventh conference of the Communist Party, the Party Central Committee and the General Headquarters of Chinese People's Liberation Army prepared to move to Beiping. Chairman Mao called together the cadres of the guard army of the organs directly under the central committee, and said sincerely and earnestly:“We will move into Beiping soon., we aren't Li Zichengs. After Li moved into Beiping, they became degenerate, but when we move into Beiping, we will keep on doing the socialist revolution and the socialist construction until we realize communism.” On March 23, 1949, Chairman Mao, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, and the General Headquarters of Chinese People's Liberation Army leaved Xibaipo for Beiping.

The Former Residence of Comrade Liu Shaoqi

After Zaolingou conference on March 26, 1947, the central working committee with the secretary Liu Shaoqi crossed the Yellow River on the east, and arrived at Xibaipo in advance in May the same year to do the work that the centrality commissioned. And since then, Comrade Liu Shaoqi had being lived here for two years.

There are two rooms in the northen house, of which the east one was the office of Comrade Liu Shaoqi and the west one was the office of Comrade Wang Guangmei. The north small room of the eastern wing-room was the bedroom of Comrade Liao Luyan, the secretary of Comrade Liu Shaoqi and the south one was the bedroom of Comrade Huang Hua, the secretary of General Commander Zhu.(During the working committee period, Generalissimo Zhulived in the dooryard of Comrade Liu Shaoqi)

Comrade Liu Shaoqi arrived at Xibaipo when the great People's liberation war was in the second year, and then he presided at the national conference of Chinese Communist Party from July 17th to September 13th, 1947 in order to abolish the feudalism that had governed China for thousand years. The conference was held at a threshing ground on the west of the big yard with the platform put on an nearby old house foundation under which there built a cloth shed. Sitting on the stone, the delegates who attended the conference from all over the country listened to the reporting of Comrade Liu Shaoqi. In the end, the Chinese land law précis was passed in the conference, and was formally promulgated on October 10 the same year. The land reform's success greatly accelerated the victory of the national liberation war. Furthermore the central working committee with Liu Shaoqi as Secretary led the liberation war in North China, economic construction and war industry production.

The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and Chairman Mao arrived at Xibaipo in May 1948. The former committee, the later committee and the working committee were amalgamated and the central Committee and the General Headquarters of Chinese People's Army started to formally work at Xibaipo. Comrade Liu Shaoqi was appointed as the Vice-chirman of the Central Military Commission concurrently the chief of the Gendral Political Department, the secretary of the Secretariant of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and concurrently the secretary of North China Bureau, and the dean of the central Marx-Lenin institute.

Liu Shaoqi with other secretaries assisted Chairman Mao to dispose and command the three world-famous campaign: Liaoshen, Huaihai and Pingjin, participated the September conference in 1948 and the January government bureau conference in 1949, attended the second meeting of the seventh conference of the Party delegates, and made an important speech. Furthermore, Liu Shaoqi also made important speeches at war industry conference, enemy work conference, female work conference, youth work conference and cadre conference, etc.

Liu Shaoqi's living was very simple, and his office was not only council chamber, but also bureau of central working committee. During the working committee period, many important meetings were called here. The desk, sofa and swivel chair etc. are all the original things. The wooden box at the northwestern corner was the documents box that Comrade Liu Shaoqi had used for a long time and it was also the only one of the articles that were taken away from Xibaipo to Beiping by Comrade Liu Shaoqi. There were many valuable manuscripts in it, such as Discussing the Culture of the Communist and the Report on the National Land Conference, and so on. During the “institutional revolution”, Comrade Liu Shaoqi’s house had been searched for several times. Thanks to the nurserymaid Comrade Zhao Shujun who past a layer of color paper over the box to cover the words: “The third of Qi”, the box had escaped from the disaster. Comrade Wang Guangmei personally presented it to our museum in June 1980. The western wing-room in backyard was the bedroom of Liu Shaoqi couple and his family..

Liu Shaoqi with other secretaries assisted Chairman Mao to dispose and direct the three world-famous campaign: Liaoshen, Huaihai and Pingjin, participated the September conference in 1948 and the January government bureau conference in 1949, attended the second meeting of the seventh conference of the Party delegates, and made an important speech. Furthermore, Liu Shaoqi also made important speech at war industry conference, enemy work conference, female work conference, youth work conference and cadre conference etc.

Liu Shaoqi's living was very simple, his office was not only council chamber, but also bureau of central working committee. During the working committee period, many important meetings were called here. The desk, sofa and swivel chair etc. are all the protoplasts. The xylary box at the west-north corner was the wood box which Comrade Liu Shaoqi had used for a long time, was also the only one of the articles that were taken away from Xibaipo to Beiping by Comrade Liu Shaoqi. There were many costful manuscripts in it, such as Discussing the Culture of the Commie and the Report on the National Soil Conference, and so on. During the “institutional revolution”, Comrade Liu Shaoqi's house was searched for several times. Because the nurserymaid Comrade Zhao Shujun adhibited a layer of color paper to cover the words: “The third of Qi”, the deedbox escaped by the skin of one's teeth. Comrade Wang Guangmei personally presented it to our museum in June, 1980. The western wing-room in backyard was the bedroom of Liu Shaoqi couple and their children.

 The Former Residence of Comrade Zhou Enlai

Comrade Zhou Enlai arrived at Xibaipo on April 23, 1948. At that time, he was the secretary of the Party Central Committee Secretariat, the Vice-chairman of the Military Commission and concurrently the general chief of staff. Everybody kindly called him “Vice-Chairman Zhou”. Vice-Chairman Zhou was very busy. He not only investigated the war situation with chairman Mao and the commander-in-chief Zhu, but also heard the report on the front line, checked the military information, drafted telegrams, read over documents and so on. The congratulatory telegrams, which were sent by the central military commission to Muqi campaign and the liberation of Jinan and Jingzhou were all personally drafted by Vice-Chairman Zhou.

The former room in the east of northen house was the office of Comrade Zhou Enlai. In the two back rooms, the east one was the office of Comrade Deng Yingchao and the west one was their bedroom. The room in the south of the western wing-room was the bedroom of Li Tao who was the minister of the Military Commission Operational Headquarter, and the room in thewest of the southern house was the bedroom of Zhang Qinghua who was the vice-director of the Military Commission Operational Headquarter.

In the days of the decisive battles, Vice-chairman Zhou often worked day and night. The photograph, on the east wall of his office reflects his working circumstances. Vice-chairman Zhou was very serious and he supplied Chirman Mao with exact information and datum to dispose all of the campaigns. At one time, a staff officer reported to Vice-Chairman Zhou, however, after he reported, Vice-chairman Zhou immediately pointed out that he failed to report the number of an enemy camp that were destroyed. After being verified, it was really like this. Vice-chairman Zhou's seriety deeply educated the attendant staff officers.

Vice-chairman Zhou in deed lived with simplicity and industriousness during his life. On the way to Shanbei he had ever been lightly equipped three times, and when he arrived at Xibaipo only one pocket-on-horse of filling goods were left. The bookshelf in the bedroom had ever been used by Vice-Chairman Zhou and was specially made in order to march conveniently in those days, which had three boxes when joined and it was a bookshelf when spread. The dual-purpose radio of alternating-direct current on the desk in the office of Deng Yingchao was the spoils of Xuchang War and was sent by Comrade Chen Yi.

Vice-chairman Zhou was very concerned about the growth of the guard soldiers. In 1948, several guards were sent to central literacy remediation class to study, and Vice-chairman Zhou gladly talked with them and autographed for them: “Learn the truth of serving for people”.

Everybody will never forget that at the night of July 30, 1948, when it was ringing in torrents, several cave-houses collapsed and 4 people were buried inside. As soon as Vice-chairman Zhou heard about the news, he immediately took the lantern on the desk, wore a raincoat and, took an shovel and went to the site to organize the salvage personall. Vice-chairman Zhou carefully arranged and then checked other department dormitories, and until the comrades who lived in the cave-houses had moved to safe places Vice-chairman Zhou went back to rest. The attendant comrades were moved by f Vice-chairman Zhou's deep emotion to his revolutionary comrades.

From March 5th to 13th, 1949 Vice-Chairman Zhou attended the second meeting of the seventh conference of the Communist Party and made an important speech. On March 23 he accompanied Chairman Mao and the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China left Xibaipo to Beiping.

The Former Residence of Comrade Zhude

This cave-house style house with three rooms, which was built by central working committee themselves, was prepared for Chairman Mao. But after Chairman Mao came here, he thought Commander-in-chief Zhu was old enough to reside in. Commander-in-chief Zhu stick not to do, but Chairman Mao still stick to make him reside in. At length, Commander-in-chief Zhu moved here from the dooryard of Comrade Liu Shaoqi in November, 1948.

The west room of the cave-house was the office of Commander-in-chief Zhu, the middle one was parlor, and the east one was bedroom.

Commander-in-chief Zhude accompanied by Comrade Liu Shaoqi etc. arrived at Xibaipo in May, 1947. During that period, he occupied the Commander-in-chief of the Chinese Liberation Army and the secretary of the Chinese Communist centrality secretary department. Commander-in-chief Zhu was easy to approach. In spare time, he ofern hunted in field, woods and riverside to training marksmanship. Sometimes he also talked with the local people.

At the end of October 1947, Commander-in-chief Zhu used more than one month to inspect the Jizhong army and the situation of finance, economy, industry and elementary education in Jizhong area by vehicle. He also made long speech to corps and upward cadres of local field army and Jizhong area. During the inspection time, our Jinchaji field army was prepared to initiate a campaign to liberate Shijiazhuang. Commander-in-chief Zhu personally questioned the captive, disposed aimed at enemy army, and made campaign projects. On November 12,1947, our army took the Huaberi important town Shijiazhuang. After the battle, Commander-in-chief Zhu also personally summarized the experience of the assault fortified positions battle. He cheerly wrote capture stone door.

Commander-in-chief Zhu was very concerned about economy construction and the life of the masses of the liberation area. He also participated the completion ceremony of the Pingshan county Tangtangshui power plant and cut the ribbon. In the ceremony convention, he said:this hydro-power can help the production of ammunition, in the future also will help country construction, and it is belongs to one part of the socialism construction.

During the period in Xibaipo, Comrade Zhu De attended the national soil conference, the September conference of the central government bureau, the January conference of the central government bureau and the second meeting of the seventh conference of the Party delegates. He assisted Chairman Mao to dispose and direct the three world-famous campaign: Liaoshen, Huaihai and Pingjin. The desk, sofa and swivel chair etc. furnished in the office of Commander-in-chief Zhu are all the protoplasts. The metal desk and chair are conquests which were captured from division commander Zhang Lingpu of the enemy army seventy-forth division by our Huadong field army in the Menglianggu campaign in May 1947.After the campaign, when Commander-in-chief Zhu inspected in front line, Comrade Chen Yi gave them to him. Commander-in-chief Zhu used them all along in Xibaipo. During the second meeting of the seventh conference of the Party delegates, the comrades of military affairs ever made panel discussion. When the centrality moved to Beiping, Commander-in-chief Zhu took them to Beiping as well as. On the former twenty days before he passed away, he personally authorized to present this set metal desk-chair to our museum on June 26, 1976. The bed, clothes rack and bedstand in bedroom are all the protoplasts. The radiogram was send by a Russian friend.

Commander-in-chief Zhu with the centrality of the Chinese Communist Party and the HQ of Chinese Liberation Army leaved Xibaipo where he had lived and worked for two years to Beiping on March 23, 1949.

The Former Residence of Comrade Ren Bishi

The northern house in this small yard is divided into the east room and the west room. The east one was the office of Comrade Ren Bishi, the west one was the bedroom of Comrade Ren Bishi couple. The north room in the west wing-room was the bedroom of Ren Bishi's son, He Long ever reside in the south one, during the September conference period. The north room in the eastern wing-room was the bedroom of Ren Bishi's two daughters, the south one was the bedroom of the confidential secretary Comrade Shi Zhe of Ren Bishi. Two rooms in the southern house was the bedroom of the workers.

Comrade Ren Bishi arrived at Xibaipo on April, 1948. He was the youngest one in the five secretaries.

Comrade Ren Bishi is one of the pioneer party member and organiger of Chinese Communist. From 1920 when he who was 16 years old joined cocialism Youth League to 1950 when he who was 46 years ole passed away, Comrade Ren Bishi had valiant struggled for Chinese revolution career for 30 years as one day.

During the period of Kuomintang governing, Ren Bishi was arrested into prison two times. Facing the enemy cruel torture, he was constant to the bitter end, exhibited the spiritual integrity of a Communist Party. Although he was rescued, his body was got serious destroy.

Comrade Ren Bishi with illness insisted on working, battled all over the country following centrality of Communist Party and Chairman Mao. In Spring of 1948, he following Chairman Mao came to Xibaipo  from Shanbei. When they crossed Wutaishan, they encountered heavy snow sealing the mountain, the army and vehicles were hampered. Comrade Ren Bishi

During the period in Xibaipo, he occupied the secretary of the Chinese Communist centrality secretary department. He with illness participated the leading work of the Chinese Communist centrality.

Comrade Ren Bishi had a trial struggling life, which can incarnate from the cultural relic in the room. A piece of old carpet on the bed was textile during Yanan big production. The wood box and metal box in room were the portable deedbox which Comrade Ren Bishi took on the way from Shanbei to Xibaipo.

In his lifetime, Comrade Ren Bishi unweariedly studied Marx-Lenin literature and Chairman Mao literature. Even in the war condition, he was never discontinuous. There is a strip-shaped seal on the desk, all of the books that he had studied were sealed with this seal. He undertook the leading work for Youth League for long time. He was good at teaching the youth and was the closest tutor. His struggling for revolution life is deserved to study by the youth forever.

During the period in Xibaipo, he ever wrote to his son Ren Yuan: "Tad should study hard with heart. If he didn't study, he would be no use in the future. " This is not only the edification and requirement of Comrade Ren Bishi to his son, but also should be remembered by the youth forever.

Comrade Ren Bishi attended the second meeting of the seventh conference of the Party delegates and made a speech on March 5 to 13, 1949. Following the Centrality of the Chinese Communist Party and the HQ of the Liberation Army, he leaved Xibaipo to Beiping on March 23, 1949.

The Former Residence of Comrade Dong Biwu

Following the central working committee, Comrade Dong Biwu arrived at Xibaipo from Shanbei in May, 1947. He had worked here for two years.

The east room in the northern house was the office of Mr. Dong, the west one was the bedroom of the family of Mr. Dong. The west wing-room and the south wing-room were the bedroom of the working staff. The Chinese flowering crabapple, apricot-plum and green bamboo in the yard were all planted by Mr. Dong and his wife Comrade He Lianzhi in their spare time. During the time, Mr. Dong occupied the secretary of the Chinese Communist centrality Huabei bureau secretary department, the director of the Huabei finance and economics committee, the chairman of the Huabei dumb millions gov.

As one pilot of our Party, Comrade Dong Biwu attended the national soil conference, the September conference and the second meeting of the seventh conference of the Party delegates and made a speech.

Comrade Dong Biwu unweariedly studied Marx-Lenin literature and Chairman Mao literature. The books that Mr. Dong read at that time are in the bookshelf. There often laid pen and ink and paper on his desk. He insisted on studying and writing everyday, was never discontinuous. He in deed did that living to old and studying to old. It is here that Mr. Dong inscribed" People's Bank of China" for the first issuance of Renminbi in December, 1948.

Mr. Dong's living was very simple. He slept on farm kang and used the carpet that was textile in the Yanan big production. He studious worked, and took part in labor in his spare time. He also opened up wasteland to seed vegetable and plant trees. During the period in Yanan, Comrade He Lianzhi early was a good spinning worker, she was appraised as the laboring hero in Shanganning border area. At Xibaipo, she often span line and plaited sweaters, riddled sand for construction houses of the department, made soles with Mr. Dong.

The spinning wheel that Comrade He Lianzhi had used to spin line is on the kang. In those years, Mr. Dong ever learned how to spin line with Comrade He Lianzhi. Because he just began to learn it, he always couldn't harmonize his right hand and left hand, his spun line was uneven.

Looking the craftily graceful spinning action of his wife, Mr. Dong feelingly recited: " Entwist lines with palm and handshake with fist, it is easy when looking but difficult when doing". After making great efforts, Mr. Dong learned how to spin line at last. In 1978, Mr. Dong's wife returned to Xibaipo. When seeing this spinning wheel, she let herself go to cross her legs and sit on the kang to emotively shake the spinning wheel again, as if she returned to the indelible years.

Mr. and Mrs.Dong were very concerned about the sufferings of the masses. Once, a farmer's child was ill at the last gasp. The family thought that the child couldn't be cured, but they couldn't bear to throw away, so they put it on the roller. After Mr. Dong couple heard that news, they immediately sent for the child to the department sanitation station. After salved, the child was turned the corner. At present, the child is still living and in good health. When the masses in the Xibaipo area mention this story, they all moved by it.
 

 
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